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   2012| April-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 18, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
I Nanda Balan, M Shivakumar, PD Madan Kumar
April-June 2012, 3(2):146-150
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98688  
Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai's groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.
  11,464 1,248 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Mucoadhesive microspheres: A novel approach to increase gastroretention
Alka Lohani, Gangwar Poonam Chaudhary
April-June 2012, 3(2):121-128
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98684  
The aim of this study is to review the advantages of mucoadhesive microspheres, mechanisms, and theories involved in mucoadhesion, factors that affect the mucoadhesion and polymers in mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems are those which are retained in the stomach for a longer period of time and thereby improve the bioavailability of drugs. Mucoadhesion is a topic of current interest in the design of drug delivery systems. Mucoadhesion is currently explained by six theories: electronic, adsorption, wetting, mechanical, diffusion, and fracture. Microspheres constitute an important part of these particulate drug delivery systems by virtue of their small size and efficient carrier capacity, but coupling of bioadhesive properties to these microspheres has additional advantages such as prolong residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption and intimate contact of the dosage form with the underline absorption surface contributed to improved therapeutic performance of the drug or improved bioavailability of drug, reduced dosing frequency, and improved patience compliance.
  5,928 924 3
Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia - A review of current management techniques
Yadavalli Guruprasad, Dinesh Singh Chauhan
April-June 2012, 3(2):106-110
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98672  
Fibrous dysplasia is a pathologic condition of bone of unknown etiology with no apparent familial, hereditary or congenital basis. Lichtenstein first coined the term in 1938 and in 1942 he and Jaffe separated it from other fibro-osseous lesions. It is a bone tumor that, although benign, has the potential to cause significant cosmetic and functional disturbance, particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Its management poses significant challenges to the surgeon. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is 1 of 3 types of fibrous dysplasia that can affect the bones of the craniofacial complex, including the mandible and maxilla. Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal developmental disorder of the bone-forming mesenchyme that manifests as a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation. It is a lesion of unknown etiology, uncertain pathogenesis, and diverse histopathology. Fibrous dysplasia represents about 2, 5% of all bone tumors and over 7% of all benign tumours. Over the years, we have gained a better understanding of its etiology, clinical behavior, and both surgical and non-surgical treatments.
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A basic insight into the stability and manufacturing aspects of solid dispersions
Jishnu Vijay, Jyothi T Sahadevan, Ritu M Gilhotra
April-June 2012, 3(2):95-105
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98668  
The development of a bioavailable dosage form is the most challenging task for the researchers. In the arena of advanced drug delivery systems, the solid dispersion techniques seem to be a promising system for the development of an optimized, bioavailable formulation of Class 2 drugs. The methods of formulation of solid dispersion have been summarized. This article is an effort to define a solid dispersion and its classification. The prospective of the stability of solid dispersion has also been discussed. Moreover, the major techniques that have been used so far such as the fusion/melting method, solvent evaporation method, hot melt extrusion method, supercritical fluid methods, have also been detailed.
  4,481 680 -
Important advances in malaria vaccine research
Priyanka Jadhav, Ritesh Shah, Manoj Jadhav
April-June 2012, 3(2):111-120
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98676  
Malaria is one of the most widespread parasitic infection in Asian countries affecting the poor of the poor. In an effort to develop an effective vaccine for the treatment of malaria, various attempts are being made worldwide. If successful, such a vaccine can be effective for treatment of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. This would also be able to avoid complications such as drug resistance, resistance to insecticides, nonadherence to the treatment schedule, and eventually high cost of treatment in the resource-limited settings. In the current compilation, the details from the literature were collected by using PubMed and Medline as search engines and searched for terms such as malaria, vaccine, and malaria treatment. This review collates and provides glimpses of the information on the recent malaria vaccine development. The reader will be taken through the historical perspective followed by the approaches to the malaria vaccine development from pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines, asexual stage vaccines, transmission blocking vaccines, etc. Looking at the current scenario of the malaria and treatment strategies, it is an absolute need of an hour that an effective malaria vaccine should be developed. This would bring a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment modalities especially when there is increasing emergence of resistance to existing drug therapy. It would be of great purpose to serve those living in malaria endemic region and also for travelers which are nonimmune and coming to malaria endemic region. As infection by P. vivax is more prevalent in India and other Asian subcontinent and is often prominent in areas where elimination is being attempted, special consideration is required of the role of vaccines in blocking transmission, regardless of the stages being targeted. Development of vaccines is feasible but with the support of private sector and government organization in terms of regulatory and most importantly financially, being an expensive venture.
  4,498 661 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Studies on inclusion complex as potential systems for enhancement of oral bioavailability of olmesartan medoxomil
Hetal Paresh Thakkar, Bindesh Vishnubhai Patel, Mayur Prakashbhai Parmar, Nirav Pravinkumar Chauhan, Arpita Ashokbhai Patel
April-June 2012, 3(2):129-136
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98685  
Background: Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), an anti-hypertensive agent administered orally, has absolute bioavailability of only 26% due to the poor aqueous solubility (7.75 μg/ml). Inclusion complexation with cyclodextrins (CD) has been reported to increase the aqueous solubility of various compounds. Aim: The present investigation aimed to enhancing the oral bioavailability of OLM by inclusion complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). Materials and Methods: The inclusion complexes with HP-β-CD were prepared using two different methods, viz., physical mixture and kneading. The prepared complexes were characterized for various parameters such as drug content, aqueous solubility, dissolution study, in vitro diffusion, intestinal permeability and stability study. The formation of the inclusion complex was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: The solubility, dissolution, diffusion rate, and intestinal permeability of the prepared complexes were found to be significantly higher than that of the plain drug. Among the two methods used for formation of inclusion complex, KN method gave higher solubility rates and hence is a better method when compared with PM. Conclusion: The approach seems to be promising in improving the oral bioavailability of OLM.
  4,395 553 1
Formulation and characterization of calcium chloride guar gum microsphere of theophylline
Sofiya Verma, Deepak Jain, Shashi B Shukla
April-June 2012, 3(2):137-140
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98686  
Aim: The aim of the present work was to formulate and characterize an effective colonic drug delivery system for nocturnal asthma based on the time- and pH-dependent system. Materials and Methods: The microsphere of calcium chloride guar gum was prepared by using theophylline. It was prepared by the method of emulsification and coating was done by the method of solvent evaporation with the pH-sensitive eudragit polymers. The prepared microsphere was characterized by particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, and degree of swelling. Results: The drug release was confirmed by the in vitro drug release in various pH progression medium and dissolution medium. The controlled release of theophylline after a lag time was achieved with developed formulation for colon drug delivery. Conclusion: The pH-dependent solubility behavior of eudragit and gelling properties of guar gum are found to be responsible for delaying the release.
  3,290 467 -
Effect of pH on the viscosity of grewia mucilage
Ikoni Ogaji, Xiujuan Peng, Ignatius S Okafor, Stephen W Hoag
April-June 2012, 3(2):141-145
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98687  
Background: The stability and efficacy of liquid pharmaceutical preparations depend on the pH of the medium. Such liquid preparations may contain varied additives performing different functions. One of the qualities of oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations is appropriate viscosity for pumping and transfer during manufacture and dispensing to patients. Gums find use in such liquid preparations as thickening or suspending agents together with different additives that may influence the pH of the environment and hence the stability and quality of the preparation. Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pH on the viscosity of grewia gum obtained from Grewia mollis that is potential pharmaceutical excipient. Setting and Design: The study was based on experiments carried out in the laboratory setting and the conclusions were based on the observations made. Materials and Methods: Aqueous mucilage of grewia (2% w/v) was prepared and the pH was determined at different shear rates on Brookfield cone and plate rheometer at 25°C. Adjustment of pH was facilitated by the addition of 0.25 N solution of either hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide before the readings were taken. Results: The viscosity of the mucilage was characteristically pseudoplastic and it depended on pH of the medium and storage time. The viscosity ratio generally decreased from 2.046 to 1.470 as the pH of the medium increased from acidic to basic (2.18 to 13.10). The dynamic yield value of the dispersion at pH 2.55 and 5.08 were, respectively, 10.5 and 45. The viscosity of grewia gum dispersion changed with change in pH of the medium anomalously. Conclusion: Changes in the viscosity of grewia gum dispersion were observed with change in the pH in an unrelated fashion. This suggests that the use of grewia gum together with other additives in oral liquid preparations should be done with discretion.
  3,101 389 1
A pilot study exploring awareness among general public toward issues related to medication safety in the state of Penang, Malaysia
Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Asrul A Shafie, Fahad Saleem, Harith Al-Qazaz, Imran Masood, Muhammad Atif, Hisham Aljadhey
April-June 2012, 3(2):156-159
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98690  
Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0 and descriptive statistics were reported where appropriate. Results: Majority of the respondents (n=292, 61.3%) stated that they were well aware of the possible side effects of their current medications. A total of 196 respondents (41.17%) believed that all medicines registered in Malaysia are safe to use as these medicines have no side effects. About 40.33% (n=192) of the respondents claimed that they share their unused medicines with family and friends who are having similar illness. Majority of respondents 57.7% (n=275) were satisfied with the drug information provided by the healthcare professionals. This study also found that more than 80% of the respondents (n=409) did report that they read the labels of their medication before using. Conclusions: In this study, it was revealed that there is a moderate level of public knowledge regarding medication safety. It is evident that public underestimates the risk of their medications. There is a general lack of awareness and understanding among the public especially toward side effects.
  2,180 399 2
Periodontal status in HIV-positive individuals and its possible correlation with CD4+T cell count
K Asif, K Neelima, Shaila V Kothiwale, Renuka Patil
April-June 2012, 3(2):151-155
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98689  
Background : Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in loss of immunologic functions, especially those coordinated by CD4+ T-helper cells and consequent impairment of immune response. Periodontal disease has been associated with HIV infection, and HIV infection has been considered a modifier of periodontal disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the severity of periodontal disease in HIV-positive individuals and its association between clinical periodontal indices and CD4+T-cell count. Materials and Methods: 25 HIV-positive individuals were recruited and medical history was recorded. To evaluate periodontal disease, clinical attachment loss (CAL), oral hygiene index (OHI), and gingival bleeding index (GI) were recorded. Immune suppression was measured by peripheral blood CD4+T cells/mm 3 as analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical Analysis: Association between CD4+ T levels and clinical parameters were determined using correlation coefficient test. Results: When all subjects were evaluated, a negative correlation was obtained between CD4+ T-cell count and clinical attachment loss (r = -0.68226). In individuals with CD4+cell counts <200 cells/ mm 3 , a negative correlation was obtained between clinical attachment loss (-0.35467) and GI (-0.35202). In patients with CD4 count <200, a negative correlation was obtained between CAL (-0.30361), GI (-0.29711), and OHI (-0.14669). Conclusion: Immune suppression in combination with risk factors may increase progression of periodontal disease. Hence, these individuals should practice better oral hygiene and regular follow-up.
  2,223 316 1
Determination of efficacy of root planing in removal of nicotine from periodontally involved teeth of smokers
Neelima Katti, Devapratim Mohanty, K Asif, Niranjan Shatapathy
April-June 2012, 3(2):160-165
DOI:10.4103/2229-5186.98691  
Background and Aims: Tobacco smoking is now recognized to be an important risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Nicotine, the major constituent of particulate phase of tobacco smoke, in addition to having its toxic systemic effects, is capable of causing local cytotoxicity. The typical characteristic of smoking-associated periodontal disease is the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth, with the ensuing clinical symptoms of bone loss, attachment loss, pocket formation, and eventually tooth loss. The mechanisms behind the destructive effects of smoking on the periodontal tissues, however, are not well understood. This study aimed to detect nicotine from the root surfaces of periodontally involved root surfaces and to compare the quantity of nicotine present on root-planed and non-root-planed surfaces of teeth from smokers. Materials and Methods: 25 periodontally involved extracted teeth were taken from 18 smoker patients. The roots were sectioned longitudinally and each root half was either root planed (group B) or left untreated (group A). Each root half was extracted for nicotine using methylene chloride technique, and quantified using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Statistical analysis: Nicotine concentrations were compared between the root planed ans the non root planed groups using paired t-test. Results: The results showed that nicotine could be detected from the root surface of periodontally involved teeth. The amount of nicotine present on non-root planed sections was statistically significantly higher than on treated sections. Conclusion: Nicotine is present on the periodonatally involved root surfaces of smoker patients and also its concentration can be significantly reduced by thorough root planning.
  1,525 326 -